Käyttämäsi selain on vanhentunut. Suosittelemme, että päivität selaimesi ensin uusimpaan mahdolliseen versioon.




































Practical Guide to Scientific Writing



Material and Methods


Discussion and Conclusions




You can avoid some common mistakes and improve your scientific manuscript yourself by

a) following the next nine points

and by

b) checking that you find answers to the questions presented.

These are very basic points in scientific writing, and you can read them from several scientific writing guides.

They are easy to say, but they are not so easy to follow, and they are not so easy to notice when writing, reading, and rewriting one’s own manuscript time after time.

We are here to help you to find those points and correct them. 

Please contact and ask.



Order by Mail

Practical Guide to Scientific Writing

Please complete the form below and we will mail it to you free of charge.

Fields marked with * are required.

Short Guide to Scientific Writing

Our service strives to help researchers in developing scientific manuscripts and together with the authors, prepare articles that can be published in international scientific journals.

I am writing this 'Guide to Scientific Writing' to give authors some basic practical advice. I present nine points that everyone can easily check and improve the possibilities to get their article published. These points are for your use if you want to improve your scientific article yourself and make it more reader-friendly.

In this guide, I have chosen to present some points that arise from my experience in reading articles I have got to edit.

I try to write this simply – simply to check if you have followed these points. I try to keep the language simple to be easily understood by non-native English speakers. I avoid difficult terms that are used in many guides for scientific writing and make this guide more practical.

These are points that I believe many of the peer reviewers, editors and future readers can agree with, but still they are not absolute rules. All points may not be applicable to all manuscripts and all journals. Some of the points may be a question of opinion. These are my opinions. However, I believe that all journals, also high-quality scientific journals with high impact factor (IF) or high SJR/ SCI rank, appreciate these points.


In our scientific writing and editing service, we first want to understand these points in your study. We feel them necessary to understand when we help you to develop your article further.




    Start with a short overview about
    the wider context of the study.

    What is the wider environmental problem or     ecological issue (or whatever issue you are     studying) your study belongs to?



    The aims paragraph is
    the heart of the article.


    What was the research question you wanted     to get the answer to?



    Present the study design precisely.

    Where and how did the sampling happen
    in detail?



    Tell the number of replicates (n )
    for the treatments / groups.


    Does a reader understand easily
    how many samples you took?



    Present the means, deviations and n
for the treatments / groups.


    Does a reader easily understand
    what the actual values of your results     (observations, calculated results) were and     how they varied?


        Discussion and Conclusions


    Give answers to your research questions /     hypotheses / aims.



    What did you learn?  




    Separate three paragraphs out of the article:
    a) The first paragraph of the introduction,
    b) the aims and
    c) the conclusions.



    Put them one after another.

    Is there a story?


        Make our work easier and check/correct two more things:


    Use the same words/ terms / abbreviations for the variables you measured, treatments and     for the treatment levels throughout the text, from the abstract to the final conclusion.



    Results: Check that the values you write in the text match with the values in the tables and     figures.



Do you find an answer to the questions from your scientific manuscript? 


If you want any help, please contact us.


You can order a free guide (13 pages), where I write about each point more and give some examples. Please fill the contact form beside.



This short guide was written by Oili Kiikkilä.

Published 9.9.2017. 

Share on Social Media